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Can you distinguish the three kinds of perforation? Summary of control techniques for holing disease


Can you distinguish the three kinds of perforation? Summary of control techniques for holing disease

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Original title: Can you distinguish three kinds of perforation disease? Summary of control techniques for holing disease Laodao Note: There are three kinds of peach tree perforation diseases, namely, bacterial perforation disease, mildew perforation disease and brown spot perforation disease. Peach tree perforation disease is divided into three kinds, namely: bacterial perforation disease, mildew perforation disease and brown spot perforation disease. There is a clear distinction between the incidence of these three types of perforation disease and the pathogen of the disease, and the relative control measures for the disease are also different, but many peach farmers are easily confused when distinguishing. Peach brown spot perforation disease map On April 18, a peach tree grower in Shiyan City, Hubei Province, asked the farmer about the disease of peach tree perforation, asking what kind of disease it is, what causes the disease and how to prevent and control it accurately. Shiyan City Agricultural Housekeeper Users Provide Disease Map Agricultural housekeeper APP online experts give the following answers: Serving agriculture, rural areas and farmers (Wuwei City, Gansu Province): Bacterial perforation disease, controlled by Zhongshengmycin or Yekuzuo. Zhai Peijian (Shandong Lvhe Fertilizer Co., Ltd., Zibo City, Shandong Province is good at soil management): Bacterial perforation disease can be controlled by Zhongshengmycin, Yekuzuo and Thiabendazole. Expand the full text Liu Tao (Shandong Quanlin Jiayou Fertilizer Co., Ltd., Gaotang County, Liaocheng City, Shandong Province is good at plant protection technology): Bacterial disease symptoms can be treated by spraying 1000 times of 77% Kailde or 800 times of copper complex, 1000-800 times of quinoline copper and 1000 times of agricultural streptomycin. Han Zhitao (Gaotang County, Liaocheng City, Shandong Province): Bacterial perforation can be treated with quinoline copper and streptomycin. Lv Lanhua (Agricultural Bureau of Yanggu County, Liaocheng City, Shandong Province is good at plant protection technology): It is a bacterial perforation disease induced by high humidity. It is suggested that systemic fungicides such as zinc thiazole, ethylicin and chlorobromoisocyanuric acid should be sprayed to control the disease. Wang Guilian (Juye County, Heze City, Shandong Province): Brown spot perforation disease was controlled by mancozeb and thiophanate-methyl. Feng Tao (Agricultural Technology Station of Shouxian County, Lu'an City, Anhui Province is good at plant protection technology): It is recommended to use flusilazole or trifloxystrobin Tebuconazole to control brown spot perforation. Zhao Yibin (Shandong Quanlin Jiayou Modern Agriculture Co., Ltd., Dong'e County, Liaocheng City, Shandong Province, is good at cultivation techniques): Considering bacterial perforation, spray with Zhongshengyekuzuo. Guo Xinhua (Guanxian County, Liaocheng City, Shandong Province is good at plant protection technology): Bacterial perforation disease is controlled by Zhongshengmycin, ethylicin, agricultural streptomycin, chlorobromoisocyanuric acid, etc. This disease is diagnosed by most experts as bacterial perforation disease. Can you accurately judge the other two diseases? The following is a small series to popularize the distinction and prevention technology of perforation disease. For more disease information, please pay attention to: Agricultural Housekeeper-Agricultural Technology. Agricultural technology interface for you to push more agricultural technology information, ask about diseases, please look for: agricultural housekeeper Q a interface. Bacterial perforation Hazard symptoms Peach bacterial holing disease mainly damages leaves, but also fruits and branches. The leaves were damaged, with small translucent oil-soaked spots at the beginning, and then gradually expanded, round or irregular round, purplish brown or brown, surrounded by a yellowish halo. When the weather is humid, the back of the lesion often overflows with yellow-white sticky bacterial pus. Later, the lesion dries up, and a circle of cracks occurs at the junction of the diseased and healthy parts, which is easy to fall off and form perforation. There are two kinds of lesions on the branches: one is called spring ulcer, and the other is called summer ulcer. In spring, the ulcer lesion was oily, slightly brown and slightly raised; in late spring, the epidermis of the diseased part ruptured into ulcer. Summer ulcers often occur on young shoots, forming oil-soaked, dark purple spots around lenticels at the beginning, slightly depressed in the center, and with oil-soaked edges. Damage to the fruit: dark purple round central slightly sunken lesions appear on the fruit surface, yellow-white mucilage appears on the lesions when the air humidity is high, and cracks appear on the lesions when they are dry. Peach bacterial holing disease Morbidity regularity Pathogenic bacteria overwinter in the tissue of ulcer lesions in spring, and after the temperature rises in the next spring, the overwintering bacteria begin to move, and the disease occurs on the branches, forming spring ulcers. Before and after the flowering of peach trees, through wind and rain and insect transmission, it invades from stomata on leaves and lenticels on branches and fruits for primary infection. The disease generally begins to occur in the first and middle ten days of May, spreads fastest during the Meiyu period in June, and overwinters on the damaged branches from October to November. The development of the disease was inhibited by the high temperature and drought weather in summer, and there was another expansion process in the autumn rain period. The temperature is suitable, the rain is frequent or foggy, heavy fog season, the disease is serious. High temperature and high humidity are conducive to the occurrence of the disease. Closed orchards, poor drainage, poor soil hardening, poor ventilation and light transmission, lack of fertilizer or partial application of nitrogen fertilizer will lead to weak tree vigor and serious disease. Extensive management, weak trees, partial application of nitrogen fertilizer and excessive growth of trees will aggravate the occurrence of the disease. Disease pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. The name of pruni is Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni, which belongs to the genus Xanthomonas of the phylum Leptothecium. High temperature and high humidity are conducive to the occurrence of the disease. Closed orchards, poor drainage, poor soil hardening, poor ventilation and light transmission, lack of fertilizer or partial application of nitrogen fertilizer will lead to weak tree vigor and serious disease. Extensive management, weak trees, partial application of nitrogen fertilizer and excessive growth of trees will aggravate the occurrence of the disease. Agricultural prevention and control First, after spring, attention should be paid to ditching and drainage, so as to stop the rain and reduce the air humidity. 2. Increase the application of organic fertilizer and phosphorus and potassium fertilizer to avoid partial application of nitrogen fertilizer. 3. Properly increase the amount of thinning branches in the inner chamber, improve ventilation and light transmission conditions, promote the growth of trees and improve disease resistance. 4. Clear and prune the garden in winter, cut off dead branches and diseased shoots thoroughly, bespoken tape measure , clean up fallen leaves and fruits in time, and burn them centrally to eliminate the source of overwintering bacteria. 5. Avoid mixed planting with other stone fruit trees such as plum and apricot when building the garden. And 6, selecte and planting that disease-resistant peach tree variety of Lincheng peach, Okubo peach, Dahe white peach, Zhongshan golden peach, Cangfang early peach and Guantao No.2. Reference agent 1. Use 100-125g/mu spray and mist for 20% Yekuzuo wettable powder (low toxicity) 2. 25% amino-ethylicin microemulsion (moderately toxic) shall be sprayed with 50-67 ml/mu. 3. Use 75-94 ml/mu of 32% oxazolone · ethylicin emulsifiable concentrate (moderately toxic) for spraying 4. Spray 100-120g/mu with 25% Zhongsheng · Pyrimethanil wettable powder (low toxicity). 5. Spray with 1500-2000 times of 8% Benzoate · Zhongsheng wettable powder (low toxicity) 6. Use 77-100g/mu spray for 40% humic acid · aluminum · metalaxyl wettable powder (low toxicity) 7. Spray 45% Jingjia · Wangtong wettable powder (low toxicity) with 100-125g/mu. 8. 41% ethylicin emulsifiable concentrate (moderately toxic) shall be sprayed with 1000-1250 times. 9. Use 50-71 ml/mu of 30% copper chloride suspension concentrate (low toxicity) for spraying 10. Spray 300-500 times of 20% thiodiazole-copper suspension concentrate (low toxicity). 11. 5% Zhongshengmycin wettable powder (low toxicity) is sprayed with 50-70g/mu. 12. Spray 45-60g/mu with 50% chlorobromoisocyanuric acid soluble powder (low toxicity) 13. 6% kasugamycin wettable powder (slightly toxic) shall be sprayed with 31-37g/mu. 14. 47% Chunlei · Wangtong wettable powder (low toxicity) shall be sprayed with 470-750 times of liquid. 15. Use 200-240g/mu spray for 30% copper succinate wettable powder (low toxicity) 16. Spray with 400-600 times of 77% copper hydroxide wettable powder (low toxicity). 17. Spray 4000-5000 times of 12% fenoxy- buprofezin aqueous emulsion (low toxicity). 18. Use 53.6-62.6g/mu to spray 70% basic copper sulfate water dispersible granules (low toxicity) 19. 33.5% quinoline copper suspension concentrate (low toxicity) is sprayed at 30-37g/mu. Mould perforation Hazard symptoms Peach mildew spot perforation disease, which mainly damages leaves, flowers and fruits. 1. Branches. When the new shoots are diseased, long oval lesions are formed with the buds as the center, the edges are purplish brown, and cracks and gummosis occur. Nodules form on older branches. The tubercle is spherical and occupies about 1/4 to 3/4 of the area around the branch. 2. Blade. The lesion is yellowish green at the beginning and then turns brown, round or irregular, with a diameter of 2 to 6 mm. Most of the young leaves were scorched and did not form perforations. When the temperature is high, black mildew grows on the back of the lesion, and some of them are produced after falling off. After the lesion falls off, it forms a perforation on the leaf. 3. Flower utensils. The pedicel was infected and withered and fell off before flowering. Four, fruit. The lesion is small and round, initially purple, gradually brown, with red edges and a slight depression in the center. Peach mildew spot and perforation disease Morbidity regularity First, the variety factor. Sticky walnut varieties are more susceptible to the disease, and the tender leaves are the most susceptible. 2. Climatic factors. Low temperature and more rain are beneficial to the disease. 3. Soil. Excessive lack of fertilizer in the soil can also cause the plant to become infected. The pathogen overwinters in the form of mycelium or conidia in the diseased leaves, branches or buds. Peach tree branches or buds are covered with gelatinous layer, which is conducive to pathogen resistance to low temperature. In spring, the pathogen is transmitted by wind and rain. It first invades from young leaves for initial infection, produces new spores, and then invades branches or fruits. Disease pathogen The pathogen was Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lev.) Aderh. Deuteromycotina fungi 。 Coryneum beyerinckii Oud. Of Polyspora persicae. First, form. The stroma is small and black. Conidiophores tufted, with septa. Conidia clavate or fusiform, 3 to 6 separate, slightly curved, colorless or light brown, (30 to 56) μm × (6 to 7) μm in size. 2. Characteristics. The development temperature of the pathogen is 7 ~ 37 ℃, and the suitable temperature is 5 ~ 28 ℃. 3. Host. Peach, nectarine, apricot, Badan apricot, cherry, plum, plum, osmanthus cherry, etc. Agricultural prevention and control 1. Strengthen the management of peach orchards, enhance tree vigor and improve tree disease resistance. 2. For peach orchards with high groundwater level or heavy soil, soil improvement, timely drainage, reasonable pruning, timely pruning of diseased branches, thorough removal of diseased leaves, centralized burning or deep burial should be carried out to reduce the source of bacteria. Reference agent 1. 500g/L fluazinam suspension concentrate (slightly toxic) shall be sprayed with 2000-3000 times of liquid. 2. Spray with 1000-1500 times of 25% propiconazole aqueous emulsion (low toxicity) 3. Spray the 75% trifloxystrobin · Tebuconazole water dispersible granules (low toxicity) with 4000-6000 times of liquid. 4. 70% propineb · kresoxim-methyl water dispersible granules (low toxicity) shall be sprayed with 1000-1500 times of liquid. 5. Spray 1500-1750 times of 60% propine.hexaconazole water dispersible granules (low toxicity). 6. Spray 800-1000 times of 80% ethylicin EC (moderately toxic). 7. Spray with 1000-1500 times of 50% iprodione wettable powder (low toxicity) 8. Use 600-800 times of 77% copper calcium sulfate wettable powder (low toxicity) to spray. 9. 70% thiophanate-methyl wettable powder (low toxicity) shall be sprayed with 1000 times of liquid. 10. Spray 10% polyoxin wettable powder (low toxicity) with 1000-1500 times of liquid. 11. Spray 30% polyoxin · Tebuconazole wettable powder (low toxicity) with 2000-3000 times of liquid. 12. Spray 800-1000 times of 80% carbendazim wettable powder (low toxicity). 13. Spraying with 1000-2000 times of 50% demangan · Tebuconazole wettable powder (low toxicity) 14. Use 1000-2000 times of spray for 60% Pyraclostrobin · Metiram water dispersible granules (low toxicity) Brown spot perforation Hazard symptoms It mainly damages the leaves of peach trees, as well as new shoots and fruits. 1. Blade. The lesion is round or nearly round, brown in the middle, purple on the edge, slightly ringed, 1 to 4 mm in diameter. If the air is humid, gray-brown mildew will grow on the lesion in the later stage, and the middle part will wither and fall off, forming a perforation with neat edges and obvious residual necrotic tissue. When there are many perforations, the leaves fall off. Two, branch tip. It forms brown, sunken, reddish-brown lesions on the branches, and gray mildew when wet. Three, fruit. Brown, sunken, reddish-brown lesions appear on the diseased fruit, and gray mildew appears when it is wet. Brown spot perforation of peach tree Morbidity regularity Low temperature and more rain are conducive to the occurrence and prevalence of the disease, and low temperature and more humidity in solar greenhouse are conducive to the occurrence of the disease. The pathogen overwinters in the form of mycelium in the diseased tissues of the diseased leaves or branches. When the temperature rises in spring, conidia are produced after rainfall, which are transmitted by wind and rain and infect leaves, new shoots and fruits. After that, the conidia produced by the diseased part were re-infected. Disease pathogen The pathogen was Cercospora drupes Cercospora circumscissa Sacc. A synonym C.cerasella Sacc,C.padi Bubak et Sereb. Deuteromycotina fungi 。 The sexual generation is the Mycosphaerella cerasellaAderh. Of Mycosphaerella cerasifera. Fungi of Ascomycotina 。 First, form. Conidiophores 10 to 16 growing in bundles, olive, unbranched, erect or curved, 0 to 1 divided, (12 to 32) μm × (3 to 4.5) μm in size. The conidiophores are borne on the stroma. The conidia are slender, whiplike, obclavate, or cylindrical, brown, erect or slightly curved, 3-12 septa, (24-120) μm × (3-4.5) μm in size. 2. Characteristics. The development temperature limit of the pathogen is 7 ~ 37 ℃, and the suitable temperature is 25 ~ 28 ℃. 3. Host. Peach, plum, apricot, cherry and other stone fruit trees. Agricultural prevention and control 1. Selecting disease-resistant varieties. 2. Build the orchard in a place where it can be drained and irrigated. 3. Reasonable close planting and scientific pruning make the peach orchard ventilated and transparent. 4. Formula fertilization, avoid partial application of nitrogen fertilizer, enhance tree vigor and improve tree disease resistance. And 5, remove overwintering fungus source, pruning at that end of autumn and the beginning of winter, cut off diseased branches and dead branches, removing dead fruits, stumps and fallen leaves, and burning or burying intensively. 6. During the growth period, cut off the dead branches and remove the diseased fruits to prevent re-infection. 7. Fruit bagging can effectively reduce diseased fruits. Reference agent 1. Use 400-600 mg/kg of 60% pyraclostrobin · metiram water dispersible granules (low toxicity) 2. 25% azoxystrobin suspension concentrate (low toxicity) is sprayed at 80-107ml/mu 3. 25% trifloxystrobin and iprodione suspension concentrate (low toxicity) was sprayed with 653-1306 ml/mu. 4. Use 150-240ml/mu spray for 480g/L azoxystrobin · chlorothalonil suspension concentrate (low toxicity) 5. Fludioxonil 12% SC (low toxicity) shall be sprayed with 70-210ml/mu. 6. Use 150-200g/mu to spray 40% sulfur · carbendazim suspension concentrate (low toxicity) 7. 80% Tebuconazole · azoxystrobin water dispersible granules (low toxicity) shall be sprayed with 4000-5000 times of liquid. 8. Use 500-1000 times of 80% sulfur water dispersible granules (low toxicity) to spray 9. 500g/L fluazinam suspension concentrate (slightly toxic) is sprayed with 2000-3000 times of liquid. 10. Spray with 1000-1500 times of 25% propiconazole aqueous emulsion (low toxicity) 11. Use 4000-6000 times of spray for 75% trifloxystrobin · Tebuconazole water dispersible granules (low toxicity) 12. 70% propineb · kresoxim-methyl water dispersible granules (low toxicity) shall be sprayed with 1000-1500 times of liquid. 13. Spray 1500-1750 times of 60% propine.hexaconazole water dispersible granules (low toxicity). 14. Spray with 1000-1500 times of 50% iprodione wettable powder (low toxicity). 15. Use 600-800 times of 77% copper calcium sulfate wettable powder (low toxicity) to spray 16. Spray 30% polyoxin · Tebuconazole wettable powder (low toxicity) with 2000-3000 times of liquid. 17. Use 1000-1200 times of 80% carbendazim wettable powder (low toxicity) to spray. 18. Spray with 1000-2000 times of 50% demangan · Tebuconazole wettable powder (low toxicity). 19. 36% thiophanate-methyl suspension concentrate (low toxicity) shall be sprayed with 1300 times Are you clear about these three kinds of perforation? It is hoped that all growers will prevent and control the disease in time so as to avoid more serious losses. Finally, how to make management easier? Tips: Download the Agricultural Housekeeper APP (please look for the ladybug logo), and update the latest farming management in the "Agricultural Technology" column every day, find the right direction, control scientifically, and do not panic when things happen. In addition, in the "Q a" column, many experts help you solve problems online, easy management is no longer empty talk! Return to Sohu to see more Responsible Editor:. tape-measure.com

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