History of Western philosophy

In the room, Chi Ying first helped Gu Xiyue to take a bath, so that she could take a hot bath comfortably after a tired day.


An "empirical" proposition is a proposition that we cannot know except by means of sensory perception, either our own sensory perception, or the sensory perception of someone else that we admit to its proof. Historical and geographical facts belong to this class, as do scientific laws wherever our knowledge of their truth depends on observational data. The "a priori" proposition, on the other hand, is the proposition that although it can be drawn out by experience, once it is known, it is seen to have a basis other than experience. When a child learns arithmetic, he experiences two small stones and two other small stones. Observing that he is experiencing four small stones in total can help him learn. But when he understood the general proposition that two plus two makes four, he no longer needed to prove it by example; the proposition had a certainty that induction could never give to a general law. All propositions in pure mathematics are a priori propositions in this sense. Hume proved that the law of causality is not analytic, and he concluded that we cannot be sure of its truth. Kant acknowledges the idea that causality is synthetic, but still maintains that causality is a priori known. He maintained that arithmetic and geometry were synthetic, yet equally a priori. So Kant used these words to describe his problem: How can there be a congenital comprehensive judgment? The answer to this question and its various conclusions constitute the theme of the Critique of Pure Reason. Kant's solution to this problem is his very confident solution. It took him twelve years to find this solution, but after his theory had been formed,Serum Bottle With Dropper, he wrote his whole book in only a few months. In the preface to the first edition, he said: "I dare to assert that there are no metaphysical problems that have not yet been solved, or at least have not yet been proposed for solution." In the preface to the second edition, he compared himself to Copernicus, saying that he had completed a Copernican revolution in philosophy. According to Kant,Oil Dropper Bottle, the external world creates only the material of sensation, but our own mental apparatus arranges this material in space and time and supplies us with the concepts by which we understand experience. The thing-in-itself, which is the cause of our sense, is not cognizable; it is not in space or time, it is not substance, and it cannot be described by any of those other general concepts which Kant called categories. Space and time are subjective and part of the organs of our perception. But because of this, we can be sure that everything we experience shows the characteristics of geometry and time science. If you always wear blue glasses, you can be sure that everything you see is blue (this is not Kant's example). Similarly, since you are mentally always wearing a pair of space glasses, you must always see everything in space. Geometry, 16 Oz Clear Plastic Bottles With Caps ,oil dropper bottle, therefore, is a priori in the sense that it must apply to everything experienced; but we have no reason to suppose that anything like geometry applies to things in themselves that we do not experience. Kant said that space and time are not concepts, but two forms of intuition. (The original German word for "intuition" is "anschauung", which literally means "to see" or "to observe".). Although the word "intuition" in English has become a definite translation, it is not a perfect translation. However, there is also the concept of a priori, that is, Kant's twelve "categories" derived from the various forms of syllogism. The twelve categories are grouped in threes into four groups: (1) about quantity: singleness, multiplicity, totality; (2) about quality: substantiality, negativity, restrictiveness; (3) about relation: substance and contingency, cause and effect, interaction; and (4) about pattern: possibility, existence, necessity. Space and time are subjective in the same sense that these categories are subjective — in other words, our mental structure is such that these categories apply to everything we experience, but there is no reason to suppose that they apply to the thing-in-itself. Concerning the cause, however, there is a paradox; for Kant sees the thing-in-itself as the cause of sensation, whereas free will he sees as the cause of events in space and time. This contradiction is not an accidental oversight; it is an essential part of his system. A large part of the Critique of Pure Reason is devoted to explaining the fallacies arising from the application of space and time or categories to unexperienced things. Kant argues that in this way, we find ourselves trapped in "antinomy". That is to say, trapped in two contradictory propositions, each of which is obviously provable. Kant cites four such antinomies, each consisting of a thesis and an antithesis. In the first antinomy, the point is: "The world has a starting point in time, and is finite in space." The antithesis is: "The world has no beginning in time and no limits in space; it is infinite both in time and space." The second antinomy proves that every compound entity is both made of simple parts and not made of simple parts. The thesis of the third antinomy claims that there are two kinds of causality, one is causality according to the law of nature, the other is causality according to the law of freedom, and the antithesis claims that there is only causality according to natural law. The fourth antinomy proves that there is neither an absolutely necessary existence nor an absolutely necessary existence. This part of the Critique has a great influence on Hegel, so Hegel's dialectics is carried out entirely through antinomy. In a famous section, Kant sets out to destroy all purely intellectual proof of the existence of God. He showed that he had other reasons for believing in God; these he would later relate in his Critique of Practical Reason (thecritique of practia calreason). But for the time being,Plastic Spray Bottles Wholesale, his purpose is purely negative. He said that there are only three proofs of the existence of God by pure reason; the three proofs are the ontological proof, the cosmological proof, and the physical theological proof. penghuangbottle.com